Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Complications of COVID-19: A Literature Review


  • Author- Muhammad Ibrahim, Ahmed Ayaz, Ainan Arshad, Erfan Hussain, Bushra Jamil


Although scientific innovation in the modern age has led the way for crucial breakthroughs in the field of medicine, human beings have not yet been able to tame burgeoning infectious threats. Initial studies had shown that elderly patients and those with a higher comorbidity burden had a worse prognosis when compared to their younger and healthier counterparts. The former were also at a higher risk of developing pulmonary complications such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm to devastating effect. Later on, it was discovered that this virus can also affect several extra-pulmonary organs and cause cardiac, neurological, thrombotic, dermatological and gastrointestinal complications. The purpose of this review article is to summarize current evidence on short and long term complications of COVID-19 in a system-wise manner to serve as a guide for all healthcare providers around the world for early detection, prevention and timely management of such complications.


Covid-19, pneumonia, cytokine storm, complications