Frequency of Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and its Comparison in Males and Females


  • Author- Qais Ul Malook, Samrah Afzal, Samrah Khalid, Saad Ansar, Osama Abdur Rehman, Sania Sarwar, Sana Fatima, Sania Akram, Osama Afzal, Rana Muhammad Ali, Iman Fatima


The current study aimed at finding out frequency of various risk factors of CHDs in patients of ACS and their gender based comparison.


Sample size of 95 patients with ACS was estimated by using 95% Confidence Interval. Data regarding risk factors were collected from five tertiary care hospitals of Lahore including study subjects of both genders, aged 23-80 years, pre-diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome. The diagnosis of the subjects was based on clinical evaluation, Electrocardiography findings and cardiac enzymes assay. The comatose and critically ill subjects were excluded. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.25.0


 Amongst 95 ACS patients (67 male, 28 female), 82% of the patients had been diagnosed with myocardial infarction having equal ratio of STEMI and NSTEMI patients whereas 16.8% with Unstable angina. More females than males had USA (28.6% females, 11.9% males). Mean age at diagnosis was lower in females. Amongst risk factors, hypertension and obesity in females whereas smoking and physical inactivity in males were found to be more prevalent (p < 0.05). Atypical presentation, chiefly contributed by nausea along with shortness of breath, was more common in females. Of all study subjects, 97% of the patients had at least 1 risk factor for CHD while 70.5% of the patients had ≥ 3 risk factors. Moreover, females had higher frequency of combined cardiovascular risk factors.


 Male patients present with disease at a later age than females with predominant risk factors being smoking and physical inactivity. Atypical presentation of ACS is relatively more common in females with their predominant risk factors being hypertension and obesity.


Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Acute Coronary Syndrome, Gender differences.