Factors Associated with Poor Glycemic Control: A Real World Data from a Private Outpatient Clinic of South Punjab, Pakistan


  • Author- Qazi Masroor Ali, Muhammad Akram, Ali Imran, Sadaf Shafique, Hafiz Muhammad Kaleem Ullah, Raheel Khan, Maria Masroor, Ghulam Muhy-ud-Din Chaudhary


Objective: To study the real world data about factors behind poor glycemic control among T2DM patients visiting a private healthcare facility of South Punjab, Pakistan.


This cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient department of medicine, Aleena Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan from 1st July 2021 to 30th December 2021. A total of 896 known T2DM patients of both gender aged between 18 to 75 years, on follow up and who underwent HbA1c levels measurement were included. Gender, age, BMI, residential status, educational status, duration of T2DM, smokers or history of smoking, and presence of hypertension were noted at the time of enrollment. HbA1c levels were asked from all institutional laboratory of the study center. HbA1c ≤ 7% was labeled as good glycemic control while HbA1c > 7% was designated as poor glycemic control.


 In a total of 896 patients, 456 (50.9%) were male. Mean age and mean BMI were 50.55±12.27 years and 26.37±5.48 kg/m2 respectively. Residential status of 474 (52.9%) patients was rural while there were 190 (21.2%) patients who were illiterate. Mean duration of diabetes was 6.47±6.39 years. Mean HbA1c was 9.63±2.40 while 130 (14.5%) patients had HbA1c ≤ 7% (good glycemic control) and remaining 766 (85.5%) had HbA1c > 7% (poor glycemic control). Increasing BMI (p=0.031), residential status as urban (p=0.021), illiteracy (p=0.002) and increasing disease duration (p=0.019) were found to have significant association with poor glycemic control.


 Vast majority of T2DM patients (85.5%) had poor glycemic control. Increased BMI, illiteracy, low socio-economic class and increased duration of T2DM were found to have significant association with poor glycemic control.


Body mass index, glycemic control, socio-economic class, type-2 diabetes mellitus.