Prevalence and Associated Factors of Vitamin D Deficiency in T2DMPatients, pPresenting in Outpatient Department of a privateHealthcare Facility of South Punjab, Pakistan


  • Author- Qazi Masroor Ali, Saba Anjum, Raheel Khan, Ali Imran, Sadaf Shafique, Aleena Masroor


Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.


This cross-sectional study was conducted at Outpatient Department of Aleena Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan from 1st January 2023 to 30th June 2023. We analyzed patients of either gender aged above 18 years and diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus for minimum duration of 6 months. At the time of enrollment, demographic and clinical characteristics were noted. VDD was described as serum vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml, insufficiency between 20-29 ng/ml, whereas sufficiency or normal vitamin D levels were declared > 30 ng/ml.


 In a total of 90 patients, 62 (68.9%) were females. The mean age and BMI were 51.52±10.64 years and 27.51±5.23 kg/m2 respectively. The mean HbA1c was 9.01±1.87. The mean vitamin D levels were 19.07±8.4 ng/ml. VDD was observed in 55 (61.1%) and insufficiency 26 (28.9%), whereas normal levels were found in 9 (10.0%) patients. Relatively younger age (p=0.029), rising duration of diabetes (p=0.026), higher HbA1c (p=0.034) and hypertension were noted to have statistically significant association with VDD.


 Evaluation of vitamin D status in type-2 diabetes mellitus revealed that vast majority of these patients were having inadequate levels of vitamin D. Relatively younger age, duration of diabetes, higher HbA1c and hypertension were having significant association with vitamin D inadequacy.


Body mass index, type-2 diabetes mellitus, HbA1c, hypertension, vitamin D