Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Risk Factors in Toxic Nodular Goiter Patients in a TertiaryCare Hospital


  • Author- Muhammad Irfan Fazal, Muhammad Zain Qamar, Huria Asghar, Maha Naseem, Arslan Hamid, Faiza Qamar, Muhammad Usman Fazal


Objective: In this specific research, patients with toxic nodular goiters were examined to determine the frequency and potential risk factors for malignant thyroid disease.


In this research, 98 patients with toxic nodular goiter, which includes both single toxic nodules (STN) and toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG), were examined. Gender, age, comorbidities, prior neck radiation, family history of thyroid cancer, type of disease, size of the largest nodule as determined by ultrasound, surgery's duration, and identification of a lymph node during surgery were some of the patient characteristics that the research gathered. The patients were divided into groups with benign and malignant conditions based on the results of the histopathological investigation.


 21 people (21.43%) of the 98 TNG patients had a malignant thyroid disease diagnosis. Both the benign and malignant groups had a comparable age distribution, but males had a significantly higher likelihood of developing cancer. In contrast, TMNG was more prevalent in the malignant group. Medical problems and family histories of cancer were equally prevalent in both groups. No discernible differences between the two groups were found in the operational statistics, including operative time and lymph node detection. Male gender and TMNG appeared to be key indicators of malignancy in regression analysis. These results imply that the danger of malignant thyroid disease in patients with TNG can be anticipated by the male gender and TMNG, two important factors.


 According to the research, malignant thyroid disease was found in 21.43 percent of TNG patients, indicating that thyroid hyperfunction does not offer protection against cancer. Additionally, these patients' MNG levels and being male were major risk factors for malignancy.


Case-control study, Breast carcinoma, Risk factors, lifestyle, socio-demographic, Pakistan, and reproductive health.