Frequency of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Type-2Diabetes Mellitus: A single center experience from a PrivateHealthcare Facility of South Punjab, Pakistan


  • Author- Maria Masroor, Qazi Masroor Ali, Sadaf Shafique, Ali Imran, Hafiz Muhammad Kaleem Ullah, Raheel Khan, Aleena Masroor


Objective: To determine the frequency of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its associated factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.


: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the department of medicine, AVA Serene Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan from May 2023 to October 2023. Patients of either gender, aged ≥ 18 years, and known cases of T2DM with minimum disease duration of 6 months were analyzed. “Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI)” measurements were carried out using a handheld doppler ultrasound device. Acutoff value of ≤0.9 was taken to label the existence of PAD.


 : : In a total of 897 patients, 507 (56.5%) were female. The mean age, and BMI were 50.68±11.65 years (ranging between 18-96 years), and 26.29±5.49 kg/m2, respectively. Concerning HbA1c levels, 202 (22.5%) exhibited values at or below 7%. Hypertension was diagnosed in 250 (27.9%) patients, whereas 126 (14.0%) reported a family history of diabetes. Additionally, 69 (7.7%) patients reported a history of smoking. The mean ABI was 1.11±0.17. PAD (ABI ≤ 0.9) was diagnosed in 90 (10.0%) patients. Among those with PAD, 76 (84.5%) had a BMI ≥ 23 (p=0.001). Significant association of hypertension and PAD was noted (40.0% vs. 26.5%, p=0.007). Smoking was found to have significant association with PAD (17.8% vs. 6.6%, p <0.001).


 : : The frequency of PAD among T2DM patients was high. Obesity, hypertension, and smoking history emerged as noteworthy risk factors of PAD.


: Ankle-Brachial Index, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, smoking, type-2 diabetes mellitus