An Association of Salt Intake with Life Style Related Diseases and Customarily Taken Diet in Women of District Bannu: A Cross Sectional Study


  • Author- Zakkia Khan, Radhia Khan, Samiullah Khan, Wasim Ahmad


Objective: To investigate the association of salt intake with lifestyle associated diseases in women of district Bannu as well as foods that are taken habitually in routine life


This cross sectional regional study was conducted from January 2020 to June 2022 in Khyber Pukhtunkhawah using a baseline survey data of 1500 patients (738 non-conceived and 762 conceived) having an age between 30-40 years and who undergone an annual check-up at a tertiary care hospital of district Bannu-KP. We designed a questionnaire to assess the patient's wellbeing and life style. Participant's BMI, height, weight, circumference were measured respectively by standard methods. Blood pressure and routine laboratory examinations were carried out at hospital's lab. Salt intake was estimated through urinary creatinine and urinary Na+


 : All the study participants were divided into three groups based on their daily salt consumption. The groups were termed as Low, Medium & High salt consumers. We assessed the prevalence of life style related diseases including DM and HTN in an increasing order in groups as High, Medium & Low salt consumption (p≤0.001). In non-conceived group, the maximum daily salt ingestion was recorded as 12.5 to 13.5 g/day and displayed a normal distribution. In conceived group, the maximum salt ingestion was recorded as 11.5 to 12.5g/day. The quantity also showed a normal distribution. Out of 738 male population, 37.94% (n=280) fall in the group with lower salt consumption (≤ 10.4g/day), 41.19% (n=304) in medium salt consumption and remaining 20.86% (n=154) in high salt consumption group (≥ 13.8 g/day). The distribution of female were as: 40.41% (n=308) in low salt consumption group (≤ 9.0g/day), 43.83% (n=334) in medium and remaining 15.74% (n=120) in high salt consumption groups (≤ 12.2 g/day).


 The study examined lifestyle associated diseases linked with excessive salt intake and dietary habits that contributed to lower salt consumption. The prevalence of HTN, higher DM and higher BMI was associated with higher salt consumption in both non-conceived and conceived females. Knowledge of low salt consumption did not play a significant role in salt reduction. We suggest a dietary move to several vegetables intake that could have salt lowering effects.


body mass index, diabetes mellitus, dietary habits, salt consumption, life style related diseases