Potential Risk Factors for Breast Carcinoma in Patients Presented in a Tertiary Care Hospital


  • Author- Muhammad Zain Qamar, Muhammad Ifran Fazal, Huria Asghar, Maha Naseem, Faiza Qamar, Muhammad Siddique


Objective: The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the different risk factors for breast carcinoma in Pakistani females.


This study employs a case-control design intended to investigate the elements that raise the likelihood of breast carcinoma risk in Pakistani females. A total of 300 participants, consisting of 165 patients with breast carcinoma and 135 controls who are age-matched, were chosen to take part in the study at Mayo Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan.


 In addition, several risk factors were discovered to be linked to a higher likelihood of developing breast carcinoma in Pakistani females, including an elevated body mass index (BMI) exceeding 25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.57; OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.26- 1.90), being unmarried (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.26-2.03), not engaging in breastfeeding, smoking (current or past), insufficient physical activity, and being in the post-menopausal stage were identified as factors associated with the outcome (95% CI, 1.69-2.44). On the other hand, increased parity was found to lower breast carcinoma risk. Furthermore, the study established that the right breast was affected in a higher proportion of cases (58.1%) compared to other breast complications (22.8%).


 In conclusion, this study highlights the various sociodemographic, reproductive, and lifestyle-related factors that are linked to breast carcinoma among females in Pakistan. These findings can aid in the development of preventative measures and awareness campaigns aimed at decreasing the rate of occurrence of breast carcinoma within this particular group.


Case-control study, Breast carcinoma, Risk factors, lifestyle, socio-demographic, Pakistan, and reproductive health.